Tire particles are of concern as a stressor due to the combination of their chemical constituents, high emission rates, and global distribution. Once in the environment, they will interact with physical parameters (e.g., UV, temperature). The interaction of chemical pollution with changing physical environmental parameters is often underestimated in ecotoxicology. Here, we investigate the role of temperature, mechanical stress (i.e., turbulence), UV and CO2 on the effects of tire leachates on fish. Two samples of tire particles were exposed to four different levels of each physical stressor. A toxicological assessment was performed with fathead minnow embryos assessing five end points (hatching success, time to hatch, length, deformities, and heart rate). Results showed that variations of temperature and mechanical stress affect the toxicological impact of tire leachates. Zn and/or PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, anthracene, naphthalene, fluoranthene, and benzo[ghi]perylene) were identified in the leachate and tire samples by Raman/SERS and GC/MS respectively.

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